Alpha Shape Python

After the input vertices have been transformed, the graphics card will form triangles, lines or points out of them. Example Python Script - OpenCV Get Image Size. shp represents a polygon. In the latter case, the data structure allows to retrieve the alpha-complex for any alpha value, the whole spectrum of critical alpha values and a filtration on the triangulation faces (this filtration is based on the first alpha value for which each face is included on the alpha-complex). computation of alpha shapes, spatial indices, and spatial-topological relationships reading and writing of sparse graph data, as well as pure python readers of spatial vector data. Logistic regression is a widely used supervised machine learning technique. In addition to the red, green, and blue components of each color, there is an additional optional fourth component, referred to as the color's "alpha. A python API will be provided to aid in the scripted generation of alpha shapes. _distn_infrastructure # # Author: Travis Oliphant 2002-2011 with contributions from # SciPy Developers 2004-2011 # from __future__ import division, print_function, absolute_import from scipy. The goal of lasso. The goal of this blog post is to demonstrate how to add watermarks to images using OpenCV and Python. Python alpha shape ou concave-hull d'un nuage de points. Followup Post: I intend to write a followup post to this one adding popular features leveraged by state-of-the-art approaches (likely Dropout, DropConnect, and Momentum). Syllabus: Algebra of vectors and matrices, determinants, inverse, solution of a system of linear algebraic equations, quadratic forms, eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Image processing means many things to many people, so I will use a couple of examples from my research to illustrate. The pixel buffer is writeable. In this step Alpha-shapes are applied for detecting the outlines of cracks. Thankfully a few people on the internet have already done much of the work in determining the concave hull of a shape. Alpha blending with OpenCV: cv2. Parallel Poisson Surface Reconstruction Matthew Bolitho1, Michael Kazhdan1, Randal Burns1, and Hugues Hoppe2 1 Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, USA 2 Microsoft Research, Microsoft Corporation, USA Abstract. * Added enhancements and features to various services. You probably want to look into the literature on Alpha Shapes. How to take a shape or Image Texture and multiply it with random Location, Rotation and Scale along object: Background. You get back a data frame, just like in pandas. The python networkx package has great support for a whole range of graphs that appear in common situations. If you have the choice working with Python 2 or Python 3, we recomend to switch to Python 3! You can read our Python Tutorial to see what the differences are. This document provides usage examples for using the Python Shapefile Library. Python keyword is a special word that forms the vocabulary of the Python language. They are extracted from open source Python projects. The map is once again powered by Leaflet and D3. A scatter plot is a type of plot that shows the data as a collection of points. There are two functions provided to compute alpha shapes. delete(array, object, axis = None) : returns a new array with the deletion of sub-arrays along with the mentioned axis. basis_tol_x' are also supported. Python Forums on Bytes. This column contains all of the shapes related to a location. Performs alpha blending and masking with Python, OpenCV, NumPy. The Python module Shapely has a built in function for determining the convex hull, but for determining the concave hull (or alpha shape), you have to do a bit more work. The pixel buffer is writeable. CPS 230 Fall Semester of 2008 Table of Contents 1 Introduction 3 I DESIGN TECHNIQUES 4 2 Divide-and-Conquer 5 3 Prune-and-Search 8 4 Dynamic Programming 11 5 Greedy Algorithms 14. Although there are many other distributions to be explored, this will be sufficient for you to get started. ables us to apply alpha-concave hull instead of convex hull in shape approximation, cover designing, geometric modeling etc. In order to compute the fi-shape (more precisely, the boundary of the shape) for a given value of fi we could proceed as follows. Template Matching with Multiple Objects¶. eye (N, M ndarray of shape (N,M) An array where all elements are equal to zero, except for the k-th diagonal, whose values are equal to one. Figure 5(b) and Figure 5(c) depict different α-shapes with values 0. Introduction to the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library CGAL www. The discreteness of samples and the stick-breaking representation of the Dirichlet process lend themselves nicely to Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation of posterior distributions. _util import getargspec_no_self as _getargspec import sys import keyword import re import types import warnings from scipy. Consequently, we can use Python list comprehensions to extract any given alpha shape: simplices = Filtration() fill_alpha_complex(points, simplices) alpha_shape = [s for s in simplices if s. For many decades, the influence of culture on an organization has been the focus of significant research and study – and for good reason: culture shapes its decision patterns, guides its actions and drives individual behavior of all its members. パイソンのみ( The fading shape of alpha 、 Drawing Boundaries In PythonまたはAlpha shapes in Python 、使用してhull (フランス語で)私のスクリプトでCプログラム)を、例、 concave_hull1. The map is once again powered by Leaflet and D3. Alpha blending with OpenCV: cv2. It can block an organization’s (or project’s) strategy, or it can catalyze it. subsample: float, optional (default=1. The Accessible Surface (AS) of a molecule is the part of the molecular surface that is exposed to the solvent, like the white sheet that wraps around a Christos installation. explore Modules to conduct exploratory analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data, including statistical testing on points, networks, and polygonal lattices. minMaxLoc() won't give you all the locations. weibullvariate(alpha, beta)¶ Weibull distribution. This is what you would get generating the convex hull: This is what you would get generating the concave hull with a specific alpha value:. One in 2D and one in 3D. New code should be written with libqhull_r. by Rick Broida. Different approximations exist depending which type of degrees of freedom are to be considered , and this includes rigid docking where protein and ligand are rigid, semi-flexible where only a selected set of side-chains of the. Ordinary differential equations, linear equation systems, approximation by series, orthogonal polynomials and st. The concept of alpha-shape was further developed in (Edelsbrunner, 1992a; Edelsbrunner, 1992b) and other solutions, such as crust algorithms (Amenta, 1998), were also proposed. Slicing can not only be used for lists, tuples or arrays, but custom data structures as well, with the slice object, which will be used later on in this article. No surface shape information is given. Moreira and M. I’ve rewritten the code and it works (it does the computations) … well, not properly: the posterior mean does not change from (0,0)…I need spend some time here to understand what happens (maybe the hyperpriors needs to be reconfigured). They are a generalization of convex hulls and should give you what you want. As @Jean-FrançoisCorbett has pointed out, there are cases where there are multiple solutions. Not available on. 1-beta1\examples\Alpha_shapes_3) on a Wind…. They are extracted from open source Python projects. txt /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages. Introduction to the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library CGAL www. Some of the operations covered by this tutorial may be useful for other kinds of multidimensional array processing than image processing. Python do have tons of external packages, some of them implemented in C and using a simple interface we can do great (and fast. The Accessible Surface (AS) of a molecule is the part of the molecular surface that is exposed to the solvent, like the white sheet that wraps around a Christos installation. Happy exploring!. Each of triangle consists of three connected lines. The concept of alpha-shape was further developed in (Edelsbrunner, 1992a; Edelsbrunner, 1992b) and other solutions, such as crust algorithms (Amenta, 1998), were also proposed. Python programs do not have a required first or last line, but can be given the location of python as their first line: #!/usr/bin/python and become executable. Python only (The fading shape of alpha , Drawing Boundaries In Python or Alpha shapes in Python, using the hull C program), examples in my scripts (in French), concave_hull1. In this way, GIMP-Python is similar to Script-Fu, except that you can use the full set of Python extension modules from the plug-in. d3 - A JavaScript visualization library for HTML and SVG. Suppose I have n ordered points. The density can be interpreted as the molecule's shape. Note: Reentrant Qhull is not thread safe. パイソンのみ( The fading shape of alpha 、 Drawing Boundaries In PythonまたはAlpha shapes in Python 、使用してhull (フランス語で)私のスクリプトでCプログラム)を、例、 concave_hull1. My curiosity is on performance when the datasets get large. I would prefer a command line utility for this task, but will also be fine with a python library. In this tutorial we will learn how to morph one face into another using OpenCV. In Python OpenCV module, there is no particular function to adjust image contrast but the official documentation of OpenCV suggests an equation that can perform image brightness and image contrast both at the same time. Using alpha shapes in python. 0) The fraction of samples to be used for fitting the individual base learners. egg-info/PKG-INFO /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/pysal-2. shape: Height is at index 0, Width is at index 1; and number of channels at index 2. Aarons, Toby (2018) The regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cognitive ageing. Join GitHub today. For now I have found this: Liagson/ConcaveHullGenerator. six import string_types, exec_ import sys import keyword import re import inspect import types import warnings from scipy. This section introduces fi-complexes which can be used to compute fi-shapes and which help in showing that there is indeed a polytope which has the set @Sfiasitsboundary. It is released under the liberal Modified BSD open source license, provides a well-documented API in the Python programming language, and is developed by an. Lasso regression analysis is a shrinkage and variable selection method for linear regression models. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Pimath is a boost. shp = alphaShape(x,y) creates a 2-D alpha shape of the points (x,y) using the default alpha radius. Consequently, we can use Python list comprehensions to extract any given alpha shape: simplices = Filtration() fill_alpha_complex(points, simplices) alpha_shape = [s for s in simplices if s. Ordinary differential equations, linear equation systems, approximation by series, orthogonal polynomials and st. ) The program can also compute Delaunay triangulations and alpha shapes, and volumes of Voronoi regions. BoundingBox Operations¶. Therefore, I urge the readers to see how the dimension of each matrix changes after each calculation. In the previous chapters, you wrote Python programs to deal with plaintext files, spreadsheets, PDFs, and other formats. To print star pyramid patterns in python, you have to use two or more than two for loops. Line 1 % Complete documentation on the extended LaTeX markup used for Python: 2 % documentation is available in ''Documenting Python'', which is part. It returns a tuple of number of rows, columns and channels. class RandomState(): RandomState(seed=None) Container for the Mersenne Twister PRNG. Suppose you are searching for an object which has multiple occurances, cv2. The Accessible Surface Area (ASA) is a wonderfully simple property of an atom that can reveal a lot about the protein molecule. python support not enabled after install: 2019-05-02 02:12 PM: 21962: QGIS Application: Bug report: Feedback: Normal: Concave hull (alpha shapes) should allow. gaiaskyの技術メモ ベイズ、機械学習などのデータサイエンスがテーマ。言語はpythonで。. Learn more. Additional conditions can be then applied to this description to create your own random walk for your…. In this case, the objects we want (gray circles) are not on the plot, so we fake them by plotting empty lists. Python only (The fading shape of alpha , Drawing Boundaries In Python or Alpha shapes in Python, using the hull C program), examples in my scripts (in French), concave_hull1. In order to compute the fi-shape (more precisely, the boundary of the shape) for a given value of fi we could proceed as follows. A search on WEB gives many results related to applications of alpha shapes in structural molecular biology. Template Matching with Multiple Objects¶. Let us apply the changes and see how the vectorized code looks like when everything is compiled together. When using width values > 1, lines will grow as follows. alpha is the scale parameter and beta is the shape parameter. But none of them output what I want. For the above example, with a suitably chosen alpha (in this case, 2500), the alpha shape looks like the following: There’s not a lot of Alpha Shape C++ code around and it’s not something you’d probably want to code up yourself unless you’re very interested in computational geometry and have lots of spare time. Reading and Writing a FITS File in Python. If α is zero, the shape is the point cloud itself, for an α value near ∞ the shape is the convex hull. If you find missing recipes or mistakes in existing recipes please add an issue to the issue tracker. OpenCV Python - Read and Display Image In Computer Vision applications, images are an integral part of the development process. egg-info/dependency_links. The following is a list of keywords for the Python programming language. It seems when we launched version 2. Contrarily, the base dataset has several red points within the blue cluster, which might create a bit of bias on the model. See Probabilistic Programming in Python using PyMC for a description. Line 1 % Complete documentation on the extended LaTeX markup used for Python: 2 % documentation is available in ''Documenting Python'', which is part. The alpha shape toolbox will provide workflows to shorten the development loop on this manual process, or to bypass it completely by solving for an alpha shape with particular characteristics. Alpha shapes: For all segments concave planar hulls (= -shapes) can be computed by setting a valid alphaRadius. The shaded region is the union of balls of radius r/2 centered at each point. Assume we are given a set S of points in 2D or 3D and we'd like to have something like ``the shape formed by these points. What remains is still a tessellation of the domain. My curiosity is on performance when the datasets get large. Biotechnology, Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology notes. Most of the D3 examples in this list come from this excel list but I also added some updates and my examples to push the list over 2K. For Loop The for loop that is used to iterate over elements of a sequence, it is often used when you have a piece of code which you want to repeat "n" number of time. I have created my first procedural shape on my own from this function: $(x^2 + y^2 - 1)^3 - x^2y^3 = 0$ (big yay for math idiot) Here is the result: And I want to do something useful with it. Returns the n-th alpha-value, sorted in an increasing order. You can watch a great demo of how alpha shapes work on François Bélair's website "Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Alpha Shapes But Were Afraid to Ask" I borrowed the following pictures from that site:. This python program explains a step by step process to print alphabet pattern A using the range function. The Alpha Shape is the union of all simplices of the alpha complex. It returns a tuple of number of rows, columns and channels. I thought it would use the same calculateGammaParams() function that I wrote and simply inverse the scale and shape, by doing 1/scale and 1. If you have the choice working with Python 2 or Python 3, we recomend to switch to Python 3! You can read our Python Tutorial to see what the differences are. It seems when we launched version 2. In that case, alpha shapes but this is an area where python doesn't appear to do so well at the moment, and indeed the math is more recent. 1, the hull in Figure 2. Python is a powerful multi-purpose programming language created by Guido van Rossum. Since @Sfi(S) ‰DT(S). sep}, rather than 1801 the operating-specific ones such as `$\slash$' or ` $\backslash$'. I have had some success using the Plotly tools via Python for this (although. imread() returns a 2D or 3D matrix based on the number of color channels present in the image. plot() to visualize the distribution of a dataset. I already found several Java, Python and C++ implementation but no C# version. Pandas is an open-source module for working with data structures and analysis, one that is ubiquitous for data scientists who use Python. info() # smoothed computing using moving averages. 0, a copy of the first image is returned. alpha is the scale parameter and beta is the shape parameter. alpha float [0, 1], optional. Logistic Regression is a Machine Learning classification algorithm that is used to predict the probability of a categorical dependent variable. Dark theme Light theme #lines Light theme #lines. If necessary, the result is clipped to fit into the allowed output range. Alpha Shapes algorithm has some basic steps: 1. I have had some success using the Plotly tools via Python for this (although. In this tutorial, you explored some commonly used probability distributions and learned to create and plot them in python. Python has an amazing feature just for that called slicing. Opacity of colorized labels. shape: Height is at index 0, Width is at index 1; and number of channels at index 2. In this case, the objects we want (gray circles) are not on the plot, so we fake them by plotting empty lists. The set of all real numbers alpha leads to a family of shapes capturing the intuitive notion of "crude'' versus "fine'' shape of a point set. Alpha shape filtrations are available via DioDe. Let’s look at a simple python zip function example. Has all of the same methods as Random plus the whseed() method described below. An alpha value of 255 will make the pixel fully opaque, value 0 will make it fully transparent, values in between will make the pixel partly transparent. plotly-tutorials 1000 true assets/ 2016-03-10T15:50:20. Color information in After Effects is contained in three channels: red (R), green (G), and blue (B). This C++ program is built using the CGAL library. Python examples of popular machine learning algorithms with interactive Jupyter demos and math being explained and would love to explore a fast alpha-shapes. Note: remember len() is a Python function that results in an integer. class Alpha_shape_3(CGAL. imread() function. An exact copy of the real cabin is placed on a motion platform and surrounded by multi pipe projection screens to simulate the real world as closely as possible. Line 1 % Complete documentation on the extended LaTeX markup used for Python: 2 % documentation is available in ''Documenting Python'', which is part. FlightSim - Airport simulator May 2015 – May 2015. AlphaDropout keras. Gift opening. Such experimental results suggested the use of alpha shapes in modeling molecular structure. Let us apply the changes and see how the vectorized code looks like when everything is compiled together. d3 - A JavaScript visualization library for HTML and SVG. In the next step, triangles are grouped by letting small triangle flow towards neighbouring larger triangles, which act as sinks. Thanks @dustin!I understand your final note in the previous message. I've inherited a template that shows the amount of days between purchases for customers, and I need to update it with fresh data. 1, the hull in Figure 2. I thought it would use the same calculateGammaParams() function that I wrote and simply inverse the scale and shape, by doing 1/scale and 1. Website | Github. This python program explains a step by step process to print alphabet pattern A using the range function. The program uses exact arithmetic when possible, with a moderate speed penalty. OpenCV Python – Read and Display Image In Computer Vision applications, images are an integral part of the development process. Returns: An Image object. new_img = a * original_img + b. The library offers data structures and algorithms like triangulations, Voronoi diagrams, Boolean operations on polygons and polyhedra, point set processing, arrangements of curves, surface and volume mesh generation, geometry processing, alpha shapes, convex hull algorithms, shape reconstruction, AABB and KD trees…. For even width values, the thickness of each line grows with the original line being offset from the center (as there is no exact center line drawn). As an instance of the rv_continuous class, alpha object inherits from it a collection of generic methods (see below for the full list), and completes them with details specific for this particular distribution. The python networkx package has great support for a whole range of graphs that appear in common situations. The legend will always reference some object that is on the plot, so if we'd like to display a particular shape we need to plot it. The first method is called alpha-shapes which is a generalization of the well-known shrink-wrap algorithm. When I call scipy. The bold aesthetics are required. This can be. is_sent_start, which returns a boolean value instead of a misleading 0 for False and 1 for True. I am running ubuntu. Example Python Script – OpenCV Get Image Size. PORTA, a collection of tools for analyzing polytopes and polyhedra, by Thomas Christof and Andreas Loebel, featured in Günter Ziegler's Lectures on Polytopes. Convex hulls are well known and widely implemented in GIS systems. In program that prints pattern contains two for loops, the first loop is responsible for rows and the second for loop is responsible for columns. alpha is the scale parameter and beta is the shape parameter. d3 - A JavaScript visualization library for HTML and SVG. TensorFlow Lite for mobile and embedded devices For Production TensorFlow Extended for end-to-end ML components. shape: Height is at index 0, Width is at index 1; and number of channels at index 2. ops import cascaded_union, polygonize from scipy. Firstly, the set of points is transformed to set of triangles by Delaunay triangulation. Shape of image is accessed by img. A recap on Scikit-learn's estimator interface¶ Scikit-learn strives to have a uniform interface across all methods, and we'll see examples of these below. Template Matching with Multiple Objects¶. You can use files to save the information from the computation routine, and then read this in to a plotting program. When I call scipy. They are extracted from open source Python projects. You can create the figure with equal width and height, or force the aspect ratio to be equal after plotting by calling ax. To read an image in Python using OpenCV, use cv2. @param alpha: alpha value to influence the gooeyness of the border. 1c) of the protein's surface atoms using alpha shapes [13, 14]. Moreira and M. But none of them output what I want. Applying alpha-concave hull gives us a better approximation of shapes rather than using convex hull. `RandomState` exposes a number of methods for generating random numbers drawn from a variety of probability distributions. Here, you will learn how to display image with Matplotlib. enters the alpha shape, and critical is a flag indicating whether the simplex intersects its dual Voronoi cell. Python alpha shape ou concave-hull d'un nuage de points. In this case, the objects we want (gray circles) are not on the plot, so we fake them by plotting empty lists. 16 Dec 2005. PNG worked for transparency but I couldn't get. Support for storing ROIs in TIFF tag fields. No surface shape information is given. alpha¶ scipy. If α is zero, the shape is the point cloud itself, for an α value near ∞ the shape is the convex hull. Lima AN (2), Philot EA (2), Scott LPB (1,*), Perahia D (2). Submissions to arXiv should conform to Cornell University academic standards. ogr2ogr for converting postGIS layer to shapefile. The OpenStreetMap conference brings together people who care about OpenStreetMap to advance the world's free community map. Installation. alpha is the shape parameter. In CGAL you Then check all tetrahedons if they are connected with a super tetrahedon. @param points: Iterable container of points. cgal,delaunay,surface,lidar. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Some big names of the past, might be. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. I've put a lot of work into making Shapely play well with Numpy and Matplotlib through the Python geospatial data protocol; it's fun to experiment with them like this. Veusz can also be embedded in other Python programs, even those not using PyQt. This is an excerpt from the Python Data Science Handbook by Jake VanderPlas; Jupyter notebooks are available on GitHub. image_alpha float [0, 1], optional. This C++ program is built using the CGAL library. [email protected] XlsxWriter is a Python module for creating Excel XLSX files. We will cover basic concepts from a number of areas of mathematics, such as abstract algebra, algebraic topology, and optimization. This page gathers links to external projects using CGAL. bg_color str or array, optional. R has the package "psych" which allows one to calculate the Cronbach's alpha very easily just by one line: psych::alpha(your_data, column_list) For Python, the situation is more tricky since there does not seem to exist any package for calculating Cronbach's alpha. Since @Sfi(S) ‰DT(S). The alpha shape toolbox will provide workflows to shorten the development loop on this manual process, or to bypass it completely by solving for an alpha shape with particular characteristics. Improve this page. Contrarily, the base dataset has several red points within the blue cluster, which might create a bit of bias on the model. alpha is the scale parameter and beta is the shape parameter. This site is open source. I'm looking for a C# implementation of the Concave hull (alpha shapes) algorithm. I was wondering if there is a way to make a transparent image for Tkinter. Assume we are given a set S of points in 2D or 3D and we'd like to have something like ``the shape formed by these points. is_sent_start, which returns a boolean value instead of a misleading 0 for False and 1 for True. A threshold level is chosen called alpha, typically 5% (or 0. Slicing can not only be used for lists, tuples or arrays, but custom data structures as well, with the slice object, which will be used later on in this article. Details are available in the PySAL api. In this post we will explore this algorithm and we will implement it using Python from scratch. I’ve adopted some of the code you can find in the blog posts Drawing Boundaries In Python by HumanGeo and The fading shape of alpha by Sean Gillies. Source code for scipy. Logistic Regression is a Machine Learning classification algorithm that is used to predict the probability of a categorical dependent variable. For the α-shape generation of a point cloud an input parameter α is needed. CGAL User and Reference Manual. There are two functions provided to compute alpha shapes. In this step-by-step Seaborn tutorial, you'll learn how to use one of Python's most convenient libraries for data visualization. The flags is to specify the color type of a loaded image: Image properties include number of rows, columns and channels, type of image data, number of pixels etc. I have been playing with TETGEN and a means of producing an alpha shape in 3D but I have a ways to go. paretovariate. Alpha shapes, spatial indices, and spatial-topological relationships. CGAL is a software project that provides easy access to efficient and reliable geometric algorithms in the form of a C++ library. This is quite a vague notion and there are probably many possible interpretations, the alpha shape being one of them. If you don't have pip installed, this Python installation guide can guide you through the process. One in 2D and one in 3D. repris de The fading shape of alpha de Sean Gillies pour m'en rappeler:. Delaunay_triangulation_3): The class Alpha_shape_3 represents the family of alpha shapes of points in the 3D space for all positive. The Shapefile format is a popular Geographic Information System vector data format. Print Star Pyramid Patterns in Python. One of the most in-demand machine learning skill is regression analysis. gr +30-2107722861. _distn_infrastructure # # Author: Travis Oliphant 2002-2011 with contributions from # SciPy Developers 2004-2011 # from __future__ import division, print_function, absolute_import from scipy. In the next cell, paste the following code then press SHIFT + ENTER to execute the code:. You can use files to save the information from the computation routine, and then read this in to a plotting program. Section Regular Triangulations), replacing the euclidean distance by the power to weighted points. weibullvariate(alpha, beta)¶ Weibull distribution. Existing users of libqhull should consider converting to libqhull_r. it is necessary to specify path separators using the Python code \code{os. W = W - alpha*dW b = b - alpha*dB. In this step-by-step Seaborn tutorial, you'll learn how to use one of Python's most convenient libraries for data visualization. If alpha is 1. This python program explains a step by step process to print alphabet pattern A using the range function. It seems when we launched version 2. Abstract This work develops a novel framework which can automatically detect, parameterize and interpolateperiodic motion patterns obtained from a motion capture sequence. png 2019-02-24T16:43:11. arXiv is funded by Cornell University, the Simons Foundation and by the member institutions. fit(x) in Python, where x is a bunch of numbers in the range $[0,1]$, 4 values are returned. Institute and Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sci. Python, etc. egg-info/PKG-INFO /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/pysal-2. Recursion examples Recursion in with a list. vmin, vmax: scalar, optional. _distn_infrastructure # # Author: Travis Oliphant 2002-2011 with contributions from # SciPy Developers 2004-2011 # from __future__ import division, print_function, absolute_import from scipy. This site is open source. CGAL User and Reference Manual. I have created my first procedural shape on my own from this function: $(x^2 + y^2 - 1)^3 - x^2y^3 = 0$ (big yay for math idiot) Here is the result: And I want to do something useful with it.